Publications & Documents

  • 15-December-2023


    The Space Economy in Figures - Responding to Global Challenges

    Efforts to respond to global challenges have greatly benefited from space technologies that are more advanced, perform more efficiently and are operating at greater scale than ever before. But as the challenges facing society grow and intensify, questions arise as to whether the space sector can continue to deliver on its promise. Reaping the full benefits of what space activities have to offer will require substantial and targeted government action. Key priorities include maintaining the continuity and quality of government civilian missions, levelling the playing field for private actors entering the market, and securing the orbital environment for future generations. This edition of the Space Economy in Figures delves into these topics, drawing from both established and novel economic and policy data sources.
  • 22-November-2023

    English, PDF, 202kb

    Workshop on AI, digital technologies and economic outcomes

    This workshop on 22-23 November will look at issues including the role of policy to foster an inclusive digital transformation in times of transitions, AI and the future of competition, and using novel data and methodologies to analyse AI and digital transformation.

    Related Documents
  • 20-November-2023


    Big Data Intelligence on Skills Demand and Training in Umbria

    The COVID-19 pandemic had a severe impact on the Umbrian economy, and despite recovery of labour demand, the region faces challenges related to digitalisation, tight labour markets, and volatile demand for low-skilled jobs. To address these issues, the OECD and the Umbrian regional agency for active labour market policies (ARPAL) have collaborated to investigate the labour and skills demand of the region using big data techniques applied to online job postings. This report provides new insights into the alignment between labour and skills demand and the training options available in the training and education programmes contained in the Umbrian Regional Training Catalogue. This report builds new indicators to measure the alignment of course content with employer demands in Umbria, with results showing that alignment is relatively good for some occupations but that this can be strengthened to provide job seekers with up-to-date training options that match the demand of the labour market.
  • 15-November-2023


    Entrepreneurial opportunities and working conditions of self-employed online freelancers in the platform economy - Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic

    This paper examines the experiences of self-employed online freelancers working on digital labour platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is based on interviews with freelancers and platform managers and experts in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Their experiences during COVID-19 reveal issues of asymmetric power vis-à-vis platforms. Notably, they reported lack of transparency and certainty in their contracts with platforms, lack of power in negotiating with clients, and limited ability to engage with clients on other platforms. In addition, they often experienced difficulties in accessing government temporary supports for businesses during the pandemic. The paper puts forward policy recommendations to address these issues.
  • 13-November-2023


    What technologies are at the core of AI? - An exploration based on patent data

    This report outlines a new methodology and provides a first exploratory analysis of technologies and applications that are at the core of recent advances in AI. Using AI-related keywords and technology classes, the study identifies AI-related patents protected in the United States in 2000-18. Among those, 'core' AI patents are selected based on their counts of AI-related forward citations. The analysis finds that, compared to other (AI and non-AI) patents, they are more original and general, and tend to be broader in technological scope. Technologies related to general AI, robotics, computer/image vision and recognition/detection are consistently listed among core AI patents, with autonomous driving and deep learning having recently become more prominent. Finally, core AI patents tend to spur innovation across AI-related domains, although some technologies – likely AI applications, such as autonomous driving or robotics – appear to increasingly contribute to developments in their own field.
  • 9-November-2023


    Report on the implementation of the OECD Privacy Guidelines

    First adopted in 1980, the OECD Privacy Guidelines are the first internationally agreed-upon set of privacy principles. They are framed in concise, technology-neutral language and have significantly influenced legislation and policy in OECD member countries and beyond. In 2018, the OECD initiated a comprehensive review of the Privacy Guidelines, which included a survey of Adherents, an ad hoc group of experts, and several workshops to explore the main challenges for privacy and personal data protection in an ever-evolving digital environment. This report presents the review's findings, confirming the continued importance and relevance of the Privacy Guidelines. However, it also highlights persistent and emerging implementation challenges and provides recommendations for addressing them.
  • 3-November-2023


    OECD Handbook on Compiling Digital Supply and Use Tables

    The digital economy is growing, with producers increasingly using digital technology to revolutionise their production processes, and with new business models being created based on the digital transformation. To improve the visibility of digitalisation in macroeconomic statistics, the Digital Supply and Use Tables (SUTs) framework has been developed under the auspices of the OECD’s Informal Advisory Group (IAG) on Measuring GDP in a Digitalised Economy. In the Digital SUTs framework, three dimensions are introduced for measuring the digital economy: the nature of the transaction (the 'how'), the goods and services produced (the 'what'), and the new digital industries (the 'who'). The OECD Handbook on Compiling Digital SUTs explains these three dimensions and includes examples. It also presents the high priority indicators that have been agreed by the IAG and includes recommended templates for producing the outputs.
  • 27-October-2023


    Explanatory memoranda of the OECD Privacy Guidelines

    The OECD Privacy Guidelines are the first internationally agreed-upon set of privacy principles and are recognized as the global minimum standard for privacy and data protection. They are a solid foundation for building effective protection and trust for individuals, and also for developing common international approaches to transborder data flows. Since their adoption, they have influenced legislation and policy in OECD countries and beyond. This document reproduces the two existing explanatory memoranda that accompany the OECD Privacy Guidelines. The first, published in 1980, was developed alongside the original version of the OECD Privacy Guidelines to help in their interpretation and application. The supplementary Explanatory Memorandum was developed to provide context and rationale for the revisions to the OECD Privacy Guidelines made in 2013.
  • 27-October-2023


    The state of implementation of the OECD AI Principles four years on

    In 2019, the OECD Council adopted the Recommendation on Artificial Intelligence (the 'OECD AI Principles'). These include five values-based principles and five recommendations for OECD countries and adhering partner economies to promote responsible and trustworthy AI policies. This report takes stock of initiatives launched by countries worldwide to implement the OECD AI Principles which were reported to the OECD.AI Policy Observatory as of May 2023. It provides an overview of national AI strategies, including their oversight and monitoring bodies, expert advisory groups, as well as their monitoring and evaluation frameworks. It also discusses the various regulatory approaches that countries are adopting to ensure AI trustworthiness, such as ethics frameworks, AI-specific regulations, and regulatory sandboxes. Additionally, the report offers policy examples for each of the ten OECD AI Principles to facilitate cross-learning among policymakers.
  • 17-October-2023


    Emerging trends in AI skill demand across 14 OECD countries

    This report analyses the demand for positions that require skills needed to develop or work with AI systems across 14 OECD countries between 2019 and 2022. It finds that, despite rapid growth in the demand for AI skills, AI-related online vacancies comprised less than 1% of all job postings and were predominantly found in sectors such as ICT and Professional Services. Skills related to Machine Learning were the most sought after. The US-focused part of the study reveals a consistent demand for socio-emotional, foundational, and technical skills across all AI employers. However, leading firms – those who posted the most AI jobs – exhibited a higher demand for AI professionals combining technical expertise with leadership, innovation, and problem-solving skills, underscoring the importance of these competencies in the AI field.
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