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Publications & Documents


  • 14-November-2022

    English

    Put product safety first: OECD online product safety sweep

    Building on the results from an online sweep in 2021, an OECD global awareness campaign from mid-November to mid-December 2022 aims to alert online platforms, online sellers and consumers about the safety risks and issues associated with products sold online.

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  • 7-November-2022

    English

    Identifying the Main Drivers of Productivity Growth - A Literature Review

    This report represents the second outcome of the collaboration between the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to improve the measurement and analysis of productivity developments across APO and OECD member economies. The report discusses the potential impact of COVID-19 on productivity and examines the role of Multifactor Productivity (MFP) as a major driver of economic growth and changes in living standards. It then identifies the most important factors influencing MFP growth and describes the most important challenges affecting the measurement of each of these factors as well as the estimation of their impact on MFP. The report provides key recommendations to improve the reliability and interpretation of the empirical evidence for economic analysis.
  • 4-November-2022

    English

    A new landscape for space applications - Illustrations from Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine

    For decades, governments have relied on space systems for intelligence gathering and satellite connectivity in remote areas, but today’s situation marks a distinct break with the past. Extended coverage, advances in digital technologies and, importantly, free and/or commercial availability of space products allow many new uses by both government and non-government actors. This brings important benefits for users and citizens, but also leads to new challenges in terms of data management, infrastructure and supply chain resilience, and international co-operation. This paper uses illustrations from the war in Ukraine to highlight recent developments in the sector, placing them in a broader context of digitalisation and government space investments. It discusses the growing importance of space technologies for society and provides policy options and resources from other strains of OECD work.
  • 3-November-2022

    English

    Consumer Product Safety

    OECD work on consumer product safety is aimed at strengthening information sharing on safety issues across borders.

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  • 26-October-2022

    English

    Dark commercial patterns

    There is mounting concern that dark commercial patterns may cause substantial consumer detriment. These practices are commonly found in online user interfaces and steer, deceive, coerce, or manipulate consumers into making choices that often are not in their best interests. This report proposes a working definition of dark commercial patterns, sets out evidence of their prevalence, effectiveness and harms, and identifies possible policy and enforcement responses to assist consumer policy makers and authorities in addressing them. It also documents possible approaches that consumers and businesses may take to mitigate dark commercial patterns.
  • 25-October-2022

    English

    Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online 2022

    This is the third benchmarking report tracking the evolution of online content-sharing services’ policies and procedures for terrorist and violent extremist content (TVEC). Fifteen of the top 50 most popular services now issue TVEC-specific transparency reports, increasing from five in 2020 and eleven in 2021. This edition also examines the 50 services that disseminate the most TVEC ('Intensive Services'). Only eleven services appear in both groups, reflecting that bad actors are shifting to smaller services as the larger ones strengthen TVEC moderation. Only eight Intensive Services currently issue TVEC-specific transparency reports, thirteen have no prohibition on TVEC and seventeen provide no information at all. The findings also suggest that services size and encryption are not insurmountable barriers to transparency reporting. It remains difficult to obtain an industry-wide perspective on the impact of companies’ measures against TVEC. Finally, regulatory fragmentation is worsening as more jurisdictions are implementing disparate transparency requirements. Previous benchmarking reports: 'Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online: An update on the global top 50 content sharing' (2021); 'Current approaches to terrorist and violent extremist content among the global top 50 online content-sharing services' (2020).
  • 25-October-2022

    English

    Enhancing online disclosure effectiveness

    Online disclosures can play a key role in informing consumer decisions. However, cognitive limitations such as information overload, as well as technical ones such as small screen sizes on mobile devices, may limit their effectiveness. Additionally, businesses may sometimes focus on technical compliance with disclosure requirements rather than maximising their effectiveness in informing consumer decisions. This report supports consumer authorities in enhancing disclosure effectiveness by providing i) a systematic overview of key disclosure characteristics; ii) guidance on the effective design of disclosures based on a review of the empirical literature; iii) an overview of overarching challenges to disclosure effectiveness and iv) an overview of possible ways to address them, including possible policy alternatives when disclosures may not be sufficient on their own.
  • 24-October-2022

    English

    Communication regulators of the future

    The communication sector is undergoing high-paced developments driven by the digital transformation of our economies and societies. Technological convergence has led to an evolving competitive landscape and new challenges arise around privacy and security concerns. Communication regulators are increasingly acknowledging the positive and negative effects of communication infrastructures and services on the environment. Moreover, there is a growing need to ensure the resilience of networks, stemming partially from the effects of climate change. In consequence, the key question for OECD policymakers is no longer whether regulatory structures need to change, but rather how. This report explores the critical role communication regulators play in an increasingly connected society. It identifies the challenges stemming from the digital transformation of our societies, the main policy objectives pursued by communication regulators, measures to address current and future challenges, as well as the importance of strengthening the capabilities of communication regulators of the future.
  • 20-October-2022

    English

    Shedding light on the drivers of services tradability over two decades

    Services have become significantly more tradable in the first two decades of the 21st century. This paper documents that trade costs for financial services, communication services and business services fell by between 30% and 60% between 2000 and 2019. Information and communication technology and growth of air traffic have acted as key drivers of this development. While there is some variation across sectors, the analysis suggests that these two determinants jointly account for a quarter to half of the aggregate decline in trade costs for services during this 20-year period. Furthermore, services provisions in regional trade agreements (RTAs) can explain between 3% and 14% of the reduction in trade costs for communications services and financial and insurance services. These findings demonstrate the importance of whole-of-government strategies to promote services trade competitiveness, inter alia market access, regulatory reform, as well as investment in physical and digital infrastructure and adoption of new technologies.
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