Partager

Publications & Documents


  • 24-May-2024

    English

    Artificial intelligence, data and competition

    This paper discusses recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly generative AI, which could positively impact many markets. While it is important that markets remain competitive to ensure their benefits are widely felt, the lifecycle for generative AI is still developing. This paper focuses on three stages: training foundation models, fine-tuning and deployment. It is too early to say how competition will develop in generative AI, but there appear to be some risks to competition that warrant attention, such as linkages across the generative AI value chain, including from existing markets, and potential barriers to accessing key inputs such as quality data and computing power. Several competition authorities and policy makers are taking actions to monitor market developments and may need to use the various advocacy and enforcement tools at their disposal. Furthermore, co-operation could play an important role in allowing authorities to efficiently maintain their knowledge and expertise.
  • 22-May-2024

    English

    Enhancing Resilience by Boosting Digital Business Transformation in Ukraine

    Digital technologies not only offer a vast potential to enhance firm productivity, they can also help enhance resilience and support economic recovery in times of war. The government has made significant strides in accelerating the digital transformation and has reinforced support for digitalisation since the onset of Russia’s full-scale invasion in February 2022. While digital technologies have brought significant benefits to the country, Ukraine’s SMEs are yet to fully tap into the potential of digitalisation. Beyond war-related challenges, lack of awareness, digital skills shortages, sectoral specificities, and financial constraints complicate their digital development. The government aims to further promote SME digitalisation and is currently preparing its SME Strategy 2024-27. Throughout 2023, the OECD provided guidance to Ukraine on how to help SMEs leverage digitalisation for productivity, resilience, and recovery. This report presents an overview of the findings, looking at i) ways to strengthen the national and subnational institutional and policy framework for SME digitalisation; ii) avenues for targeted digitalisation support services for SMEs, building on the OECD’s blueprint; and iii) specific ways digitalisation can help SMEs weather war-related challenges.
  • 15-May-2024

    English

    OECD news on innovation, science, technology and industry

    This newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

    Related Documents
  • 14-May-2024

    English

    OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Egypt

    The 2019 Egyptian National Artificial Intelligence (AI) Strategy is a key catalyst for digital transformation in Egypt and supports the country’s sustainable development agenda. As North Africa’s biggest economy, Egypt faces a challenging economic and demographic context, including high inflation and a high youth unemployment rate. As the first Arab and African country to adhere to the OECD Recommendation on Artificial Intelligence in 2021, Egypt has made progress in implementing the OECD AI Principles. This country review explores the state of implementation of the OECD AI Principles in Egypt by providing a mapping of Egypt’s AI governance and policy implementation through gap analysis, comparative analysis, and benchmarking. It highlights key findings and recommendations to strengthen Egypt’s AI ecosystem and facilitate the development of inclusive, responsible, and human-centric AI policies and practices that support Egypt’s development agenda and stand the test of time.
  • 14-May-2024

    English

    Nowcasting the growth rate of the ICT sector

    This paper details the methodology used to nowcast the growth rate of the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in the 'The growth outlook of the ICT sector' chapter of the OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2024, Volume 1. In an era of rapid digital transformation, innovative data sources for economic measurement are crucial. Internet search data have gained prominence for tracking real-time economic activity. This paper details a nowcasting model that leverages Google Trends data to provide policymakers with timely, up-to-date and comparable data on the economic growth of the ICT sector. Having timely data on ICT sector performance is essential to evaluating the effectiveness of sector-related policies. By addressing data challenges and employing a data-driven approach, this paper advances economic measurement of the digitalisation of the economy and provides insights into ICT sector growth dynamics.
  • 14-mai-2024

    Français

    La croissance de l’économie numérique dépasse celle de l’économie dans son ensemble dans les pays de l’OCDE

    Le secteur des technologies de l’information et des communications (TIC) a progressé en moyenne de 6.3 % entre 2013 et 2023, soit près de trois fois plus rapidement que l’ensemble de l’économie, dans les 27 pays de l’OCDE couverts par l’analyse.

    Documents connexes
  • 14-mai-2024

    Français

    Perspectives de l’économie numérique de l’OCDE 2024 (Volume 1) - Cap sur la frontière technologique

    Les Perspectives de l’économie numérique de l’OCDE 2024 (Volume 1) : Cap sur la frontière technologique apportent de nouveaux éclairages sur les technologies phares qui sous-tendent l’écosystème de technologies numériques ainsi que leurs impacts. Dans ce premier volume, les auteurs se sont appuyés sur des données massives et des techniques d’apprentissage automatique pour produire de nouvelles estimations du taux de croissance du secteur des technologies de l’information et des communications (STI), qui est au cœur de l’écosystème. Ils se sont ensuite tournés vers la frontière technologique, s’intéressant à l’avenir de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) et aux moyens de la façonner de manière à en faire une force positive. Ce Volume 1 propose également une analyse de l’adoption des technologies numériques par les individus, les entreprises et les administrations et donne à voir l’ampleur et la portée des fractures numériques et les solutions pour favoriser l’égalité des chances et l’inclusion. Pour ce faire, on se penche sur l’impérieuse nécessité que les réseaux sans fil de nouvelle génération fournissent une connectivité illimitée, en tout lieu. Au-delà de l’engouement suscité par les technologies immersives, on examine la capacité avérée de la réalité virtuelle à se prêter à un déploiement à grande échelle, avant d’en exposer les possibilités et les risques. Enfin, on donne un coup de projecteur à la question de la santé mentale dans les environnements numériques, en particulier ceux présentant les risques les plus élevés.
  • 6-May-2024

    English

    Defining AI incidents and related terms

    As AI use grows, so do its benefits and risks. These risks can lead to actual harms ('AI incidents') or potential dangers ('AI hazards'). Clear definitions are essential for managing and preventing these risks. This report proposes definitions for AI incidents and related terms. These definitions aim to foster international interoperability while providing flexibility for jurisdictions to determine the scope of AI incidents and hazards they wish to address.
  • 3-mai-2024

    Français

    Face aux évolutions technologiques rapides, l’OCDE met à jour les Principes sur l’IA

    Lors de la Réunion du Conseil au niveau des Ministres (RCM) de 2024 a été adoptée la version révisée des Principes de l’OCDE sur l’intelligence artificielle (IA), instrument qui a fait date dans ce domaine.

    Documents connexes
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Digital adoption during COVID-19 - Cross-country evidence from microdata

    The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented global economic downturn, affecting productivity, business dynamics, and digital technology adoption. Using a comprehensive commercial database from Spiceworks Ziff Davis, this study analyses the firm-level drivers of digitalisation during the pandemic across 20 European countries. The findings show that a considerable share of firms introduced new digital technologies during the COVID-19 crisis. Notably, firms that were larger, more digitalised, and more productive before the pandemic were more likely to introduce new digital technologies in 2020 and 2021. Additionally, firms with pre-existing complementary technologies had a higher likelihood of adopting digital applications that gained momentum during the pandemic (such as digital commerce, collaborative software, cloud, and analytics). These patterns may increase polarisation among the best-performing firms and the rest of the business population. Public policy can play a key role in fostering an inclusive digital transformation in the post-pandemic era.
  • 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>