Some products have characteristics that lead firms to compete to be the supplier of a whole market of product or services, rather than for market share (whether it be a share of units, of contracts or of consumer relationships). These might for example include: i) natural monopolies (with large economies of scale); ii) publicly-funded monopolies (that would not be provided by markets); iii) legally-protected monopolies (e.g. products protected by intellectual property rights); and d) platform monopolies (e.g. digital platforms with powerful direct or cross-platform network effects that generate increasing value from scale).
In December 2019, the Global Forum on Competition held a roundtable on competition for-the-market which focused on the first of these categories, natural monopolies, and publicly-funded monopolies, particularly on the enforcement challenges that arise when concessions are offered on these services.
Competition and the use of tenders and auctions, OECD Policy Roundtables 2014
Competition in Public Procurement Markets, by Gian Luigi Albano, OECD Policy Roundtables 2017
Checklist for protecting competition when splitting contracts into lots, OECD Public Procurement Toolbox
Checklist for protecting competition when managing the risks of very low tenders, OECD Public Procurement Toolbox
Concessions, OECD Policy Roundtables 2006
Competition in Bidding Markets, OECD Policy Roundtables 2006