OECD Climate Change

Monitoring and measuring progress towards climate ambitions

The OECD supports countries in the essential task of tracking progress toward climate goals, in addition to commitments made. The OECD designs and monitors indicators towards progress, as well as peer-led country reviews across diverse policy areas, including innovative work to provide primary data on complex policy issues. OECD international data and indicators on the environmental, economic, financial and social dimensions of climate change provide essential information for effective climate policies.

Databases to inform better climate action

Monitoring progress on climate action

 Where do countries stand on their climate action commitments? Are we making progress and what areas still need addressing? The OECD International Programme for Action on Climate (IPAC) supports country progress toward net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a more resilient economy by 2050. Through regular monitoring, policy evaluation and feedback on results and best practices, IPAC helps countries strengthen and co-ordinate their climate action. It complements and supports the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement monitoring frameworks. 


Tracking climate finance provided by developed countries

The OECD is tracking climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for climate action in developing countries. The data gathered from donor countries, multilateral development banks and climate funds quantifies progress made by developed countries towards the collective goal of mobilising USD 100 billion per year by 2020.

The series of OECD reports on Climate Finance and the USD 100 Billion Goal explores key trends of climate finance provided and mobilised, looking at its distribution across climate themes, sectors, financial instruments and recipient country groupings.


Measuring support measures for fossil fuels

Governments have committed to phasing out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies in a number of international fora, but reforms are difficult to put in place if the magnitude and full impact of support measures are not fully understood.

The OECD provides a platform to help governments evaluate their allocation of scarce budgetary resources to fossil fuels and their alignment with environmental and well-being goals.

To do so, the OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels documents and estimates the fiscal cost of government support measures that encourage fossil-fuel production or consumption relative to renewable alternatives.


Measuring carbon pricing and energy use

Carbon pricing provides incentives for households and businesses to reduce carbon-intensive energy use and shift to cleaner fuels, while also mobilising government revenue. The OECD’s data on Pricing Greenhouse Gas Emissions covers 71 countries, representing 80% of global emissions.

The OECD’s data on Pricing Greenhouse Gas Emissions covers 71 countries, representing 80% of global emissions. 

  More than 40% of GHG emissions were covered by carbon prices in 2021, up from 32% in 2018, with coverage increasing across countries and sectors.

Gaging citizen support for climate policies


Policies to address climate change have been historically difficult to implement, partly because of a real or perceived lack of public support.

A recent survey on public attitudes towards climate policies showed that a key way to increase support for carbon taxes, for example, is by designing them in such a way that their revenue offsets the burden on low-income households.

This can be done through lower income taxes or cash transfers. Explore the digital report to learn about the complex factors that drive or diminish public support for ambitious climate policies.


Monitoring climate change impact, adaptation and policies

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