New Zealand


Responding to Rising Seas

OECD Country Approaches to Tackling Coastal Risks

There is an urgent need to ensure that coastal areas are adapting to the impacts of climate change. Risks in these areas are projected to increase because of rising sea levels and development pressures. This report reviews how OECD countries can use their national adaptation planning processes to respond to this challenge. Specifically, the report examines how countries approach shared costs and responsibilities for coastal risk management and how this encourages or hinders risk-reduction behaviour by households, businesses and different levels of government. The report outlines policy tools that national governments can use to encourage an efficient, effective and equitable response to ongoing coastal change. It is informed by new analysis on the future costs of sea-level rise, and the main findings from four case studies (Canada, Germany, New Zealand and the United Kingdom).

Published on March 06, 2019Also available in: French


Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary
Rising risks in coastal zones
The challenge of coastal adaptation
Emerging approaches to coastal adaptation
Aligning coastal risk decision making and funding responsibilities on the German Baltic Sea coast
Coastal infrastructure realignment and salt marsh restoration in Nova Scotia, Canada
Clifton to Tangoio Coastal Hazards Strategy 2120, Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand
“Rollback” in North Norfolk, United Kingdom
National adaptation plans
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