Regulatory policy


Risk-based Regulatory Design for the Safe Use of Hydrogen

EU Funded Note Low-emission hydrogen is expected to play an important role in the energy transition to tackle the climate crisis. It can decarbonate “hard-to-abate” sectors still relying on fossil fuels, turn low-carbon electricity into a fuel that can be transported using pipelines and provide a green transport alternative, in particular for heavy-duty and long-distance transport. Given its potential to combat climate change, it can allow for a net reduction in societal risks if managed responsibly. However, while its potential is widely acknowledged, its application is not yet meeting ambitions. Regulation is crucial to facilitate its application and ensure its safety. This report analyses trends, risks, and regulation of hydrogen technologies across economies. It supports the use of low-emission hydrogen as part of the energy transition, by making recommendations for effective risk-based regulation, regulatory delivery and governance.

Available from July 24, 2023


Abbreviations and acronyms
Executive summary
Recommendations for the smooth development and rollout of hydrogen applications
Hydrogen in context
Regulatory governance and delivery in the energy transition
Hydrogen governance in the Netherlands
Hydrogen applications in practice
Literature review3 chapters available
Examining scenarios involving hydrogen leakage
Hydrogen safety aspects
Mapping exercise
Regulatory review2 chapters available
The hydrogen regulatory landscape
Review of hydrogen safety regulations
Review of international experience with hydrogen pilot projects2 chapters available
Hydrogen pilot projects around the world
Pilot projects by country
Review on incident database and lessons learnt2 chapters available
Scenario-based accident data review and analysis
Results and discussion
Hazard and consequences analysis1 chapter available
Bow tie barrier analysis
Lessons learnt and preliminary findings regarding hydrogen safety elements7 chapters available
Hydrogen safety measures and their significance
Production: Leakage in water electrolysis installations
Pipeline transport: leakage from high pressure pipeline
Road transport: A hydrogen leak from a hydrogen transport vehicle driving in a built-up area
Mobility and partially confined space: A hydrogen city bus driving in a tunnel
Mobility and partially confined spaces: Accident at a hydrogen fuel station
Domestic use: safety of hydrogen in buildings with focus on hydrogen use in cooking stoves and boilers
Quantitative risk assessment1 chapter available
Quantitative risk assessment: Hydrogen versus conventional fuel
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