Publications & Documents

  • 3-July-2023


    COVID-19 and policy for science

    This is the first in a series of three reports that explore how science was mobilised in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus is on policy for science – access to data and information, the role of infrastructures and the interface between academia and industry. The report includes recommendations and options for policy action to improve the resilience of national science systems and their capacity to co-operate internationally in response to crises. The context in each country is different, as illustrated by the many case studies included in the report, and so the priority attached to these recommendations and the specific details of how they might be implemented will vary. They are provided as an overall framework for science policymakers and other actors, including research funders and research providers, to consider.
  • 30-June-2023


    OECD Biotechnology Update

    Read our newsletter to stay up-to-date with all the latest OECD work on biotechnology.

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  • 26-June-2023


    Artificial Intelligence in Science - Challenges, Opportunities and the Future of Research

    The rapid advances of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years have led to numerous creative applications in science. Accelerating the productivity of science could be the most economically and socially valuable of all the uses of AI. Utilising AI to accelerate scientific productivity will support the ability of OECD countries to grow, innovate and meet global challenges, from climate change to new contagions. This publication is aimed at a broad readership, including policy makers, the public, and stakeholders in all areas of science. It is written in non-technical language and gathers the perspectives of prominent researchers and practitioners. The book examines various topics, including the current, emerging, and potential future uses of AI in science, where progress is needed to better serve scientific advancements, and changes in scientific productivity. Additionally, it explores measures to expedite the integration of AI into research in developing countries. A distinctive contribution is the book’s examination of policies for AI in science. Policy makers and actors across research systems can do much to deepen AI’s use in science, magnifying its positive effects, while adapting to the fast-changing implications of AI for research governance.
  • 19-June-2023


    Engaging citizens in innovation policy - Why, when and how?

    Innovation policies need to be socially embedded for them to effectively contribute to addressing major societal challenges. Engaging citizens in innovation policymaking can help define long-term policy priorities, enhance the quality and legitimacy of policy decisions, and increase the visibility of innovation in society. However, engaging all groups in society and effectively integrating citizens' inputs in policy processes is challenging. This paper discusses why, when and how to engage citizens in innovation policy making. It also addresses practical considerations for organising these processes, such as reaching out to diverse publics and selecting the optimal mix of methods and tools.
  • 13-June-2023


    The contribution of R&D specialist institutions to R&D performance - Findings from the NESTI 2022 pilot data collection

    Long-standing policy interest in the role of organisations specialised in research and experimental development (R&D) raises questions about how these organisations are classified under different institutional sectors and contribute to R&D statistics This paper reports on the findings of the pilot data collection conducted in 2022. The results show a diverse range of R&D specialist ecosystems as well as major reporting gaps. The ultimate aim of this exercise and its recommendations is to demonstrate how several OECD countries are able to provide meaningful statistical results using OECD guidance and promote the mainstreaming of reporting into future national and OECD R&D statistics.
  • 31-May-2023

    English, PDF, 682kb

    Technology deep dives: Synthetic biology (policy brief)

    From alternative protein sources to rapid vaccine development, synthetic biology can address global challenges and transform industries. But are current governance frameworks up to the task?

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  • 25-May-2023


    The green side of productivity - An international classification of green and brown occupations

    This paper describes the methodology used for crosswalking occupation-based measures of Green ('environmentally friendly') and Brown ('polluting') jobs from the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to the International Standard Occupation Classification (ISCO) 08 at the most detailed (4-digit) level. The original, task-based Greenness scores by Vona et al. (2018) are provided at the 8-digit SOC level, and the industry-based Brownness measures are provided in 6-digit SOC. Crosswalking these measures requires several choices in terms of weighting and aggregating, which this paper describes in detail. The robustness of the resulting measures to the different weighting options and underlying assumption is tested using Linked Employer-Employee data from Portugal. An empirical application to the Productivity-Greenness link at the firm level shows the robustness of this link to different weighting choices, and confirms that all of the different measures derived are consistent in measuring the Greenness of jobs.
  • 24-May-2023


    Public research funding in Sweden - Optimising the system in response to multiple demands

    This report provides input to a national review of the public research funding system in Sweden. It is designed to inform a broader dialogue that is taking place amongst different research stakeholders in Sweden. The report contains proposals and options for changes for Swedish public funding of research and innovation to effectively promote research excellence, support innovation and respond to societal needs. These proposals are supported by relevant international examples. The analysis takes into account insights from the OECD review of innovation policy in Sweden in 2016 and recent OECD work on different aspects of public research funding and research infrastructure.
  • 17-May-2023


    Digital Skills for Private Sector Competitiveness in Uzbekistan

    Since 2019, digital transformation has been a clear policy priority in Uzbekistan. While the country has made significant progress in terms of Internet access, quality and affordability, digital uptake among firms remains low. This lack of digital skills seems to be a limiting factor affecting the digital transformation of business. Based on recent OECD work on digitalisation, this report examines what is holding back the digital upskilling of businesses in Uzbekistan. It suggests three sets of policy actions: (1) developing a supportive institutional framework for the digital uptake of firms; (2) raising firms’ awareness of the importance of acquiring digital and complementary skills; and (3) expanding existing support to digitalise while addressing the gender digital divide.
  • 17-May-2023


    Improving Framework Conditions for the Digital Transformation of Businesses in Kazakhstan

    In recent years, Kazakhstan has developed a comprehensive digital government system and begun to create the legal and regulatory conditions for the digital transformation of the country’s economy. The digitalisation of the private sector requires further improvements in framework conditions, such as reliable access to broadband services, quality and affordability of networks, and digital security for businesses. Based on recent OECD work on digital framework conditions, this report examines the legal and operational environment that is holding back the digital transformation of private firms in Kazakhstan. The report suggests three sets of actions: (1) addressing the remaining Internet quality and connectivity gaps, notably by mobilising the regional public sector to improve the quality and density of networks, and by expanding the inclusion of the private sector in the policy-making process; (2) improving competition in, and the investment attractiveness of, the telecom sector by setting-up an independent national telecom regulator, and by developing a targeted investment attraction strategy to prepare for deployment of next-generation communication networks; and (3) adapting the regulatory and policy framework for firms adapting to new digital challenges and raising their awareness of digital security.
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