The India Energy Outlook 2021 is a new special report from the International Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook series. The report explores the opportunities and challenges ahead for India as it seeks to ensure reliable, affordable and sustainable energy to a growing population. The report examines pathways out of the crisis that emerged from the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as longer-term trends, exploring how India’s energy sector might evolve to 2040 under a range of scenarios. The report is presented as a series of ‘deep dives’ exploring cross-cutting issues, including: The effects of economic growth, urbanisation and industrialisation on India’s fuel and sector-level demand trends. The evolution of mobility, including electrification, in the context of growing urbanisation. The prospects for expanding energy access, especially in rural areas. Flexibility requirements in the power sector under ambitious renewable capacity targets and a significant rise in electricity demand – especially from air conditioners. Challenges and opportunities for clean energy finance, including investments in solar energy and batteries The supply and infrastructure required for an expanded role for natural gas, along with a sector-level assessment of its potential. Impacts of India’s energy policy choices on energy access, air pollution and carbon emissions. India’s growing importance in global energy issues, and the implications of its development trajectory on international energy supply, trade and investment.