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Publications & Documents


  • 12-October-2023

    English

    International Tax and Africa - OECD Report for the G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors

    This report reflects on the OECD’s co-operation with Africa on tax matters and the importance of the international tax agenda for African economies. It discusses Domestic Resource Mobilisation (DRM) efforts within African policy objectives and priorities, including the African Union’s Agenda 2063, and which actions should be taken to further increase DRM in Africa. The report analyses African involvement in discussions on corporate tax and how African participation in policy-setting and technical discussions could be further improved. In particular, it shows how African voices have shaped the design of the Two-Pillar Solution to Address the Tax Challenges Arising from the Digitalisation of the Economy, and discusses its benefits for African countries and challenges for implementation. In addition, the report provides an overview of OECD’s initiatives to support capacity building on tax in Africa, many of which are undertaken in partnership with other international and regional organisations. Finally, the report reflects on the broader tax policy agenda including VAT, tax transparency, tax and crime, digitalisation of tax administrations, and tax and informality. This report was prepared by the OECD to inform the discussions at the October 2023 Africa Roundtable in Marrakech hosted by G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors.
  • 12-October-2023

    English

    Global Perspectives on Triangular Co-operation

    The world is marked by multiple crises and challenges that transcend borders and require not only local but global solutions. Only by working together and bridging divides and differences can countries address these challenges and drive a sustainable development future for all. This report by the OECD and the Islamic Development Bank demonstrates triangular co-operation’s relevance for delivering progress on sustainable development. In particular, it stresses its innovative approach to diplomacy, and its ability to bring together different stakeholders from across the global south and north in trusting partnerships that leverage the expertise, knowledge and resources of all partners. The report also examines the current global trends in the use of triangular co-operation, explores how to strengthen national ecosystems to support its effective delivery, and highlights how triangular co-operation can contribute to addressing climate change and biodiversity loss, with a specific focus on small island developing states.
  • 10-October-2023

    English

    Mining Regions and Cities Case of the Pilbara, Australia

    Located in the state of Western Australia, the Pilbara is a large region and one of the least densely populated within the OECD. The Pilbara's mining sector is a top supplier of iron ore in the world, which has fuelled the economic growth of both the state and the country. While Pilbara’s industrialisation is relatively recent, dating back to the 1960s, First Nations peoples have inhabited the region for approximately 50 000 years. Despite the wealth generated by mining and extractive industries, the Pilbara faces important challenges to improve its attractiveness and well-being standards, especially for First Nations and non-mining workers. Well-being challenges also stifle growth opportunities and responsible mining investments in the region. The green transition presents the Pilbara with an opportunity to diversify its economy and improve well-being conditions of its communities, while becoming a strategic player in the global shift towards more sustainable mining. This study offers guidance on how the Pilbara can shape a more inclusive and sustainable development model that supports economic diversification and prioritises improving the living conditions of its communities, particularly First Nations.
  • 9-October-2023

    English

    Addressing forced displacement in climate change adaptation - No longer a blind spot

    This paper shows that climate-related forced displacement is insufficiently addressed in two fundamental commitments made towards the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) between 2015 and 2023: National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). It describes the important role NAPs and NDCs play in prioritising the tackling of certain aspects of climate change adaptation, identifies gaps on forced displacement, and proposes ways of adding it among their policy objectives, and of mobilising finance to reach them.
  • 9-October-2023

    English

    Enhancing international partnership and co-operation in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy

    In recent years, international development co-operation has undergone a transition from a conventional donor-recipient model to a partnership-centred approach, including with regions and cities. Friuli Venezia Giulia, a small region in north-eastern Italy with extensive policy autonomy, has been active in international co-operation and is seeking to get more out of its actions both for the region and with its co-operation partners around the world. This paper evaluates its strategy on international partnership and co-operation and proposes recommendations, including more targeted initiatives that leverage the expertise of the region for greater impact in partner countries and for local benefits.
  • 7-October-2023

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review - Spotlight on Guadeloupe's Internationalisation

    Located in the Caribbean Sea, Guadeloupe is a French Overseas Department and a European Outermost Region in search of a more sustainable economic development pathway. In support of that endeavour, this Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) Spotlight looks at the region's opportunities and challenges, identifying priority actions in several areas, including the bio- and circular economy, creative sectors and renewable energies. The Spotlight enriches our understanding of the diversity of development pathways, including those of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). It is the result of an extensive peer-review process involving public and private stakeholders from Colombia, Caribbean countries and other EU outermost regions.
  • 6-October-2023

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Costa Rica 2023

    A megadiverse county, Costa Rica is known globally for its success in reversing deforestation and pursuing a growth model based on the sustainable use of its environmental resources. However, energy use and related greenhouse gas emissions increased in the last decade. Private cars are a major and growing source of emissions affecting climate and air quality. Waste disposal still relies on landfills, and much wastewater is untreated. Costa Rica’s extensive protected area network and pioneering programme of payments for ecosystem services have helped reduce biodiversity loss and extend forests’ carbon sequestration capacity. However, more should be done to tackle pressures on biodiversity from development of infrastructure and settlements, tourism, farming and fishing. The sheer scale of investment needed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals calls for improving the efficiency of public spending, mobilising private finance, strictly enforcing regulations and providing adequate incentives. This is the first OECD Environmental Performance Review of Costa Rica. It evaluates the country’s progress towards sustainable development, with a special chapter focusing on biodiversity, and provides 52 recommendations.
  • 6-October-2023

    English

    Transitions to and from formal employment and income dynamics - Evidence from developing economies

    Using panel data for Indonesia, Malawi, Peru and South Africa, this paper investigates the relationship between transitions to formal employment and workers’ labour income. It shows that transiting from informal to formal employment increases the probability of improving workers’ labour income in both absolute and relative terms. However, income gains from formalisation do not accrue to all workers equally. Switching to formal employment has the greatest potential to improve the labour income of the richest workers. The chances of improving the labour income of the poorest workers through formalisation are slim. Transitions between formal and informal employment affect income gains and losses differently for men and women, older and younger workers, and workers with different levels of schooling. The effects of labour market transitions on income changes are considerably greater in magnitude than other life events such as a births, separation, or death of a partner or spouse.
  • 5-October-2023

    English

    Mining Regions and Cities in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile - Towards a Regional Mining Strategy

    Antofagasta is a world leader in copper and lithium production, with strategic importance for the global energy transition and for the economic development of Chile. Located in north Chile, Antofagasta is carved by the natural contours of the Atacama Desert and home to diverse Indigenous communities. Despite the wealth brought by mining, communities in Antofagasta lag on a number of well-being dimensions. At the same time, Antofagasta’s mining industry is entering a new phase of development, driven by the expected surge in global demand for its minerals and the imperative to adapt to the green and digital transitions. Against this backdrop, a new development vision with a long-term strategy is warranted in the region to leverage mining benefits to improve well-being standards and take advantage of the opportunities brought by the digital and green transition in mining. This study presents the diagnosis, rationale and building blocks for a new mining strategy in the region of Antofagasta, Chile that prioritises well-being standards and opportunities for local communities. This medium and long-term strategy aims to create a new pact amongst different societal stakeholders to build trust and unite efforts for more inclusive and sustainable growth in the region.
  • 2-October-2023

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Netherlands 2023

    The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts peer reviews of individual members once every five to six years. Reviews seek to improve the quality and effectiveness of members’ development co-operation, highlighting good practices and recommending improvements. The Netherlands continues to focus on its strengths and drives internal reforms to achieve sustainable impact. It stays engaged in fragile contexts, providing long-term and flexible financing. It is highly valued as a champion for gender equality, provides strong support to local civil society and takes action to tackle spillovers from its economic footprint. This peer review provides recommendations to enhance the Netherlands’ engagement in partner countries by putting its ambition for locally led development into practice, ensuring its thematic approach is adapted to context, and clarifying its risk appetite. Reversing the trend of decreasing budgets was a significant achievement, but effects of in-donor refugee costs on the broader Dutch development programme need to be managed.
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