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  • 26-June-2024

    English

    Western Balkans Competitiveness Outlook 2024: Regional Profile

    Inclusive and sustainable economic growth in the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies depends on greater economic competitiveness. Although the gap is closing gradually, the standards of living in WB6 are well below those of the OECD and EU. Accelerating the rate of socio-economic convergence will require a holistic and growth oriented approach to policy making. This is the fourth study of the region (formerly under the title 'Competitiveness in South East Europe') and it comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 15 policy areas key to strengthening their competitiveness. It enables WB6 economies to compare economic performance against regional peers, as well as EU-OECD good practices and standards, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. The regional profile presents assessment findings across five policy clusters crucial to accelerating socio-economic convergence of the WB6 by fostering regional co-operation: business environment, skills, infrastructure and connectivity, digital transformation and greening. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment, offering each WB6 economy an in-depth analysis of their policies supporting competitiveness. They also track the implementation of the previous 2021 study's recommendations and provide additional ones tailored to the economies’ evolving challenges. These recommendations aim to inform structural economic reforms and facilitate the region’s socio-economic convergence towards the standards of the EU and OECD.
  • 24-June-2024

    English

    Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online - Fourth edition

    This fourth benchmarking report tracks the evolution of policies and actions on terrorist and violent extremist content (TVEC) implemented by the world’s top 50 most popular online content-sharing services ('popular services') and the top 50 most used services to spread TVEC ('intensive services'). In 2023, 17 popular services issued transparency reports with TVEC-specific information, compared to 15 in 2022, marking the slowest year-to-year growth rate since the benchmarking series began in 2020. Only six intensive services issued transparency reports, down from eight in 2022. The fact that only ten services are both popular and intensive highlights the need to examine beyond the largest platforms. Additionally, as more jurisdictions enact online safety laws, the risk of regulatory fragmentation is increasing. This report underscores the necessity for greater transparency and consistency in the approaches of both services and countries.
  • 24-June-2024

    English

    Using AI to manage minimum income benefits and unemployment assistance - Opportunities, risks and possible policy directions

    While means-tested benefits such as minimum income benefits (MIB) and unemployment assistance (UA) are an essential safety net for low-income people and the unemployed, incomplete take-up is the rule rather than the exception. Building on desk research, open-ended surveys and semi-structured interviews, this paper investigates the opportunities and risks of using artificial intelligence (AI) for managing these means-tested benefits. This ranges from providing information to individuals, through determining eligibility based on pre-determined statutory criteria and identifying undue payments, to notifying individuals about their eligibility status. One of the key opportunities of using AI for these purposes is that this may improve the timeliness and take-up of MIB and UA. However, it may also lead to systematically biased eligibility assessments or increase inequalities, amongst others. Finally, the paper explores potential policy directions to help countries seize AI’s opportunities while addressing its risks, when using it for MIB or UA management.
  • 20-June-2024

    English

    Financing broadband networks of the future

    Ubiquitous access to high-quality broadband connectivity is crucial for digital transformation, economic growth, and productivity. The challenge lies in ensuring sustained long-term investments in broadband infrastructure. This report examines the diversity of actors in the financial landscape of connectivity infrastructure, highlighting trends in broadband network financing and future implications. It focuses on five important groups that invest in and provide funding for broadband infrastructure: communication operators, tower companies, big technology companies, financial asset managers, and the public sector. Communication operators saw revenue growth from 2008 to 2022, but their investment decisions going forward will depend on future returns and interest rates. Meanwhile, tower companies, big technology companies, and financial asset managers are reshaping the connectivity landscape. Finally, the report looks at the public sector, which plays an important role in enabling investments in communication infrastructure.
  • 20-June-2024

    English

    Key concepts and current technical trends in cryptography for policy makers

    This report introduces cryptography to policy makers and includes key concepts such as symmetric and asymmetric cryptography, public key infrastructure, and end-to-end encryption. It discusses advancements in homomorphic encryption, which allows computations to be performed on encrypted data without decrypting it first and accessing the secret key. Often described as 'the holy grail of cryptography', homomorphic encryption remains a promising area of research rather than a fully developed technology. The report also addresses quantum technologies, which could pose a threat to the foundations of public key cryptography, potentially undermining trust in the digital ecosystem. While current quantum computers are far from causing such disruptions, a transition to quantum-resistant (or post-quantum) cryptography is essential today to address their future impact. Additionally, quantum cryptography shows significant promise for secure communications but is not yet suitable for sensitive applications.
  • 20-June-2024

    English

    New perspectives on measuring cybersecurity

    Measuring the various aspects of cybersecurity across countries is challenging, in part because the actors in the cybersecurity ecosystem often do not have the incentives to share key data. At the same time, people, firms and governments need to feel secure to communicate online and use Internet-based services. This statistical report provides an overview of how cybersecurity is being measured across a variety of data sources and using different methodological approaches. Beginning with a checklist of measurement considerations, the report then discusses existing data from official and non-official sources, identifying when each data source is most useful. The report then provides two proofs of concepts for measuring uncertainty related to cyber risks, or 'cybersecurity uncertainty'. Measuring such uncertainty can complement existing statistics and help anticipate emerging cybersecurity trends, develop more targeted cybersecurity awareness programmes, and promote a more secure and resilient digital ecosystem.
  • 19-June-2024

    English

    Towards digital safety by design for children

    Child rights advocates, parents, governments, and children themselves are increasingly calling for digital safety by design, so that children can be protected online, and also benefit from positive digital experiences. However, the exact meaning of digital safety by design can be unclear. This report explores the concept, considering how it is addressed at international and national levels. Internationally, there are common calls for the proactive integration of safety measures into digital products and services, as well as for transparent, accountable and child-friendly service delivery. National laws prescribe practical tools and measures such as age assurance and accessible complaint mechanisms. Focusing on actions for digital service providers, the report suggests eight key components for digital safety by design for children, including practical tools, measures to foster a culture of safety, and harm mitigation strategies. These components are illustrated through case studies, highlighting a need for diverse and tailored approaches.
  • 18-June-2024

    English

    Shaping Norway’s Digital Future

    As the pace of technological change accelerates, reaching the digital frontier – and staying there – is increasingly challenging. This report analyses Norway’s digital performance, policies and priorities to inform the development of a new national digital strategy that seeks to sharpen Norway’s competitive edge and ensure that digital transformation benefits all Norwegians. It outlines the digital priorities and trends that will shape Norway’s digital future and maps its digital policy ecosystem. The report further assesses Norway’s digital performance based on the OECD Going Digital Toolkit dashboard of indicators and analyses its digital policies through the lens of the OECD Going Digital Integrated Policy Framework. It concludes with policy recommendations to achieve a more digital, innovative and inclusive Norway.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    A new dawn for public employment services - Service delivery in the age of artificial intelligence

    As part of broader digitalisation efforts, half of public employment services (PES) in OECD countries are employing Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enhance their services. AI is being adopted across all key tasks of PES, including most commonly to match jobseekers with vacancies. While several PES have been using such tools for a decade, adoption of AI has been increasing in recent years as these become more accessible. New AI use cases have emerged to assist employers in designing vacancy postings and jobseekers in their career management and job-search strategies. AI initiatives have significant impact on PES clients, changing how they interact with the PES and receive support, and PES staff, altering their day-to-day work. As PES seek to maximise the opportunities brought by AI, proactive steps should be taken to mitigate associated risks. Key considerations for PES include prioritising transparency of AI algorithms and explainability of results, establishing governance frameworks, ensuring end-users (staff and clients) are included and supported in the development and adoption process, and committing to rigorous monitoring and evaluation to increase the positive and manage any negative impact of AI solutions.
  • 11-June-2024

    English

    OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany

    This report provides an international benchmarking of Germany’s artificial intelligence (AI) ecosystem and discusses progress in implementing its national AI strategy. The report draws on quantitative and qualitative data and insights from the OECD.AI Policy Observatory and from the OECD Programme on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity and Skills (AI-WIPS) – an OECD research programme financed by the German Federal Government – and results from a series of interviews with a wide range of stakeholders in Germany. The review discusses Germany’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges in AI, and provides recommendations to steer AI policy in Germany in the coming years. The evidence is presented according to the core focus areas outlined in Germany’s national AI strategy, which include: 1) minds; 2) research; 3) transfer and applications; 4) the world of work; 5) policy and regulatory frameworks; and 6) society. Furthermore, the report discusses AI infrastructure and it includes three sector spotlights on AI in the public sector, AI and environmental sustainability and AI and healthcare.
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